Saturday, November 18, 2017

Exam Resource: ECPE & CPE Grammar Booster

Garagani-Robertson Language Schools

E.C.P.E. Michigan & C.P.E. Cambridge Proficiency Grammar Booster

These phenomena can be used as a basis for boosting your grammar in (C2) E.C.P.E. and C.P.E. compositions and interviews.

Τα φαινόμενα αυτά μπορούν να χρησιμοποιηθούν ως βάση για την ώθηση της γραμματικής σας σε (C2) ECPE και C.P.E. συνθέσεις και συνεντεύξεις.


Tenses:
Ever since the industrial revolution, pollution has become a problem that mankind has had to face.

Participle Clauses:
Being efficient, computers have become an integral part of our lives.
Having considered all points of view, it’s my firm conviction that …

Reference Words:
The implementation of such a proposal would only be possible if governments and private Industry would work together.
The reason for this is best explained by the consideration of several factors.
Racism is a serious social issue. Governments who have failed to deal with it have been overthrown in the past.
This is especially true of …

Conditionals:
Unless people act to preserve the environment soon, the health and welfare of future generations may be at stake.
It seems that there is no point implementing new rules unless they are going to be enforced.
It was once the case that you wouldn’t be allowed into certain buildings if you were foreign.
If it were asked to choose between them, I would opt for the latter option.
If this problem remains unchecked, then there may be dire consequences.

Reported Speech:
It is said that very little has been done to alleviate this problem.
It is expected that inflation will continue to rise.
Money is thought to be the main motivation behind this problem.

Passive:
Something definitely has to be done about this problem.
Under a dictatorship. citizens are oppressed.

Comparison/Superlative:
No other organisation tries to ameliorate the situation as much as the Greenpeace seem to do.
It is perhaps the worst problem the world faces today.
More attention is paid to this problem than any other.

Result clauses:
There are such a lot of cars that cities have become choked with toxic smog.
There are so many cars on the road that some municipalities have already closed city centres to all motorised traffic.

Concession:
While it is true that the government has failed to act, it is also true that voters have failed to spur politicians into action.
Despite implementing laws, poaching remains a problem.

Connectors of Cause & Effect:
Owing to the risks involved, it is unwise to keep exotic pets.
For this reason, endangered animals must be protected by law.
Acid rain is due to the combination of water and toxic chemicals in the atmosphere.
Consequently, many students find the process of education boring.
As a result, many patients seek the aid of alternative medicine.

Connectors of Opinion:
In my opinion, …
In my view,…
To my mind,…
As far as I’m concerned,…
From my point of view,…
My point of view is…

Defining/Non-Defining Relative Clauses:
The problem of pollution, which has been a point of contention for many years, is still an issue with no immediate solution.
Most cities have areas where cars are banned so that pedestrians can walk safely.

Inversions:
Not only is smoking hazardous to the smoker, but it is also harmful to those in the immediate area.

Either.. or/Neither…nor:
Neither the government nor the private sector has managed to solve the problem of unemployment.
Either the government does something or they may face public outrage.

Quantity:
It’s an issue which has provoked a great deal of public debate.
A number of people firmly believe that gun control is essential for public safety.
A lot of effort has gone into the development of an improved curriculum.
A lack of diligence has caused a whole host of problems.

Adjectives and Adverbs:
If the government acted, the situation would improve -> governmental assistance would alleviate the situation
One result could be that … -> One resultant effect could be that …
Obviously / Evidently, …
Fortunately / Unfortunately, …
Seemingly, …
People are becoming increasingly worried about the rising rate of crime.
It is highly unlikely that this problem will ever be solved.
Paradoxically, there are more and more people despite improvements in the global economy.
Cities are so densely populated that stress and frustration are inevitable consequences.
It’s unlikely that government efforts will ever make a substantial difference.
As to whether or not efforts will ever make a tangible difference, is yet to be seen.
It certainly is a most alarming situation.
Overwhelming support is given to the idea that …
Research has concluded that smoking has a detrimental effect on one’s life.
It’s vital that people realise the extent of the problem.


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